# Day 9 - Duck typing, EAFP principle

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Topics: Duck typing, EAFP principle

## Easier to ask for forgiveness than permission

Today we are going to look at a common coding style in Python called ‘Easier to ask for forgiveness than permission’ or in short ‘EAFP’. The idea of EAFP is that we assume that valid keys (or attributes) exist. If this assumption proves false, we catch and handle the exceptions that are raised. We actually used this principle already. Can you guess where? Take a close look at the @elms.setter method of the Pupil class:

@elms.setter

try:
except ValueError:
raise ValueError("Pass and iterable with two items: subject and grade")

if passed:
self._elms[subject] = True
else:
print('The exam was not passed so no ELM was awarded!')


The try ... except ... code block implements the EAFP principle. We assume that the subject_and_grade tuple exists. If it does, we unpack its values into subject, grade. If subject_and_grade is not a valid tuple, a ValueError will be raised. We catch this error in the except block and handle it appropriately.

To add another example of the EAFP principle to our Magical Universe we first extend our CastleKilmereMember class with a _traits attribute and two methods for adding and printing traits:

class CastleKilmereMember:
"""
Creates a member of the Castle Kilmere School of Magic
"""

def __init__(self, name: str, birthyear: int, sex: str):
self._name = name
self.birthyear = birthyear
self.sex = sex
self._traits = {}

self._traits[trait] = value

def print_traits(self):
true_traits = [trait for trait, value in self._traits.items() if value]
false_traits = [trait for trait, value in self._traits.items() if not value]

print(f"{self._name} is {', '.join(true_traits)} "
f"but not {', '.join(false_traits)}")

...


Let’s add a few traits to bromley:

bromley = CastleKilmereMember(name='Bromley Huckabee', birthyear=1959, sex='male')

bromley.print_traits()


This prints the following text: Bromley Huckabee is kind, tidy-minded but not impatient. Let’s add another method that checks if a Castle Kilmere member exhibits a certain character trait:

def exhibits_trait(self, trait):
try:
value = self._traits[trait]
except KeyError:
print(f"{self._name} does not have a character trait with the name '{trait}'")
return

if value:
print(f"Yes, {self._name} is {trait}!")
else:
print(f"No, {self._name} is not {trait}!")


The try ... except ... code block assumes that the given trait exists as a key. If this assumption proves false (i.e. a KeyErroris raised) it handles the missing key.

## Look before you leap (LBYL)

The opposite of the EAFP principle is called ‘Look before you leap’ (LBYL). When using LBYL we would first test if a key exists before performing the look-up operation. So our code from above would rather look as follows:

def exhibits_trait(self, trait):
if trait in self._traits:
value = self._traits[trait]
if value:
print(f"Yes, {self._name} is {trait}!")
else:
print(f"No, {self._name} is not {trait}!")

else:
print(f"{self._name} does not have a character trait with the name '{trait}'")
return


As mentioned in this stackoverflow post: “The LBYL version has to search the key inside the dictionary twice, and might also be considered slightly less readable.”

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